Your paper should be 1-2 pages in length.Please submit your outline as a . PDF file.Please proofread your assignment before you submit it.You are required to cite your newspaper source. Please use the

  • Your paper should be 1-2 pages in length.
  • Please submit your outline as a . PDF file.
  • Please proofread your assignment before you submit it.
  • You are required to cite your newspaper source. Please use the Chicago or MLA citation style.

    • Please refer to this link for citation rules: https://owl.purdue.edu/owl/research_and_citation/apa_style/apa_formatting_and_style_guide/in_text_citations_the_basics.html.
  • Crash course video, How to Write Papers and Essays: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KlgR1q3UQZE&list=PL8dPuuaLjXtNcAJRf3bE1IJU6nMfHj86W&index=11

Quiz Directions:

1. Research a newspaper article and connect what you learn to globalization. We have covered many topics this semester, so you have a wide array of options to choose from. So far, we have covered the following topics:

    • Intro to Globalization
    • History and Globalization
    • Sociology and Globalization
    • Economics and Globalization
    • Politics and Globalization
    • Culture and Globalization

2. You will select a topic of your choosing as it relates to globalization. Examples: technology, food consumption, migration, poverty, COVID, inflation, disease epidemics, culture, wealth inequality, fashion, TV and film, housing, warfare, and the Russian invasion of Ukraine. You will find an article from a reputable newspaper. Below is a list of some options:

  • The New York Times: https://www.nytimes.com/
  • The Washington Post: https://www.washingtonpost.com/
  • NPR: https://www.npr.org/
  • The Economist: https://www.economist.com/
  • The Wall Street Journal: https://www.wsj.com/
  • BBC News: https://www.bbc.com/news
  • The Atlantic: https://www.theatlantic.com/

3. It might not be enough to go to a website and see a news article immediately. You might have to research. Below is a quick step guide on how to research a topic.

  • Let’s pretend my topic is global poverty.

    • First, I would go to Google. https://www.google.com/
    • Second, I would type in search words. Get creative. Use different kinds of word combinations. Below are some examples:

      • example 1: type in the google search box– “global poverty globalization NPR”
      • example 2: type in the google search box– “poverty Latin America new york times”
      • example 3: type in the google search box– “poverty globalization Washington post”
  • Once you find an article, you will write a 1-2 page paper. Summarize the newspaper article in a well-written paper.

    • Describe the key points/themes/arguments. Provide specific examples from the article to back up those points.
    • Explain how the reading connects to more extensive sociological analyses on globalization, the economy, technology, class, race, gender, inequality, or culture.

      • Connect the newspaper articles to one of the readings. A strong paper uses specific examples over general explanations. It demonstrates that you can link theory to reality and see the connections between your topic and course readings.
  • Your paper must be well-written, have complete sentences, and be grammatically correct

Your paper should be 1-2 pages in length.Please submit your outline as a . PDF file.Please proofread your assignment before you submit it.You are required to cite your newspaper source. Please use the
G lo baliz a tio n a n d t h e s o cio lo gy o f I m man u el W alle rste in : A c rit ic a l a p pra is a l William I Robinson U niv e rsit y o f C alif o rn ia a t S an ta B arb ara , U SA A bstr a ct 1 23 © T he A uth o r(s ) 2 011 R ep rin ts a n d p erm is sio n: s a ge p ub. c o .u k/jo urn als P erm is sio ns.n av D O I: 1 0.1 177/0 268580910393372 is s.s a ge p ub.c o m By the turn of the 21st centur y the concept of globalization had earned its place in the social sciences and debate turned mor e squar ely to the theor etical significance of globalization. Y et not all scholars w er e ha pp y with the notion of globalization. Some claim that is mer ely a ne w name f or earlier theories and concepts. Among those who r eject ne w paradigmatic thinking on the cur rent age is Imman uel Wallerstein, the world-renowned sociologist and father of the w orld system paradigm . This ar ticle is intended as an a ppraisal of W allerstein s Suvr e in the context of the debate on global transf ormations in the late 20th and earl y 21st centuries and fr om the vantage point of the pr esent author s o wn critical globalization perspectiv e. The first thr ee par ts summarize and assess W allerstein s theor etical system and his man y contributions to macr o, historical and comparativ e sociolog y, to de velopment studies and international political econom y. The f our th discusses W allerstein s assessment of the e volution of the w orld ca pitalist system in r ecent decades, including his vie ws on the concept of globalization, and the fifth f ocuses on earlier and mor e r ecent critical a ppraisals of his w ork, including the pr esent author s o wn, in light of the r ecent transformations in w orld capitalism identified with globalization. K eyw ord s de velopment, globalization, history of sociolog y, social change , sociological theor y M ost w ould a g re e t h at i f w e a re t o u nders ta n d t h e 2 1st- c en tu ry s o cia l w orld w e m ust c o m e t o g rip s w ith t h e c o ncep t o f g lo baliz atio n. T he t e rm f ir s t b ecam e p opula riz ed i n t h e 1 980s. T he 1 990s s a w r a g in g d eb ate s o n t h e u se fu ln ess o f t h e c o ncep t f o r t h e s o cia l s c i e n ces a n d h um an itie s. B y t h e n ew c en tu ry t h e c o ncep t h ad c le arly e arn ed i ts p la ce a n d d eb ate t u rn ed m ore s q uare ly t o t h e t h eo re tic al s ig nif ic an ce o f g lo baliz atio n. Y et n ot a ll C orre sp o ndin g a u th o r: W illia m I R obin so n, U niv e rsit y o f C alif o rn ia , S an ta B arb ara C am pus, S an ta B arb ara , C A 9 3106, U SA . E m ail: w ir o bin [email protected] so c.u csb .e d u 2 In te rn atio nal S o cio lo gy s c h ola rs a re h ap py w ith t h e n otio n o f g lo baliz atio n. S om e c la im t h at i t i s o ld w in e p oure d i n to a n ew b ottle , m ere ly a n ew n am e f o r e arlie r t h eo rie s a n d c o ncep ts . C erta in ly t h e w orld h as e x perie n ced d ra m atic c h an ges s in ce I m man uel W alle rs te in p ublis h ed i n 1 974 t h e f ir s t v olu m e i n h is s e m in al t r ilo gy, T he M odern W orld -S yste m . B ut n ot a ll b elie v e t h at t h ese c h an ges s ig nal a n y s o rt o f q ualita tiv e t r a n sfo rm atio n i n t h e s y ste m o f w orld c ap ita l i s m t h at m erits n ew t h eo re tic al c la im s. A m ong t h ose w ho r e je ct n ew p ara d ig m atic t h in k in g o n t h e c u rre n t a g e i s I m man uel W alle rs te in , o ne o f t h e m ost r e n ow ned s o cio lo gis ts a n d w ho i s i d en tif ie d a s t h e fa th er o f t h e w orld -s y ste m p ara d ig m . T his a rtic le i s i n te n ded a s a n a p pra is a l o f W alle rs te in s S uvre i n t h e c o nte x t o f t h e d eb ate o n g lo bal t r a n sfo rm atio ns i n t h e l a te 2 0th a n d e arly 2 1st c en t u rie s. W hat i s t h e e x pla n ato ry p urc h ase o f t h is o eu vre t o o ur u nders ta n din g o f c o nte m p ora ry 2 1st- c en tu ry w orld a ff a ir s , s p ecif ic ally , t o s y ste m ic l e v el t r a n sfo rm atio ns c o m in g i n to f o cu s o ne d ecad e i n to t h e n ew c en tu ry ? T he f ir s t t h re e p arts s u m mariz e W alls te in s t h eo re tic al s y ste m a n d h is m an y c o n tr ib utio ns t o m acro , h is to ric al a n d c o m para tiv e s o ci o lo gy, t o d ev elo pm en t s tu die s a n d i n te rn atio nal p olitic al e co nom y, a n d a sse ss t h ese c o n t r ib utio ns f ro m w hat I h av e t e rm ed a c ritic al g lo baliz atio n p ers p ectiv e ( R obin so n, 2 008). T he f o urth d is c u sse s W alle rs te in s a sse ssm en t o f e v olu tio n o f t h e w orld c ap ita lis t s y ste m i n r e cen t d ecad es, i n clu din g h is v ie w s o n t h e c o ncep t o f g lo baliz atio n, a n d t h e f if th s e c t io n f o cu se s o n e arlie r a n d m ore r e cen t c ritic al a p pra is a ls o f h is w ork , i n clu din g m y o w n, i n l ig ht o f t h e r e cen t t r a n sfo rm atio ns i n w orld c ap ita lis m i d en tif ie d w ith g lo baliz atio n. Rein vigorating historical sociolo gy S om e s e e t h e w orld -s y ste m s p ara d ig m a s a p re cu rs o r t o g lo baliz atio n t h eo rie s ( W ate rs , 2 001). W orld -s y ste m t h eo ry , h ow ev er, s ta rte d o ut n ot a s a t h eo ry o f g lo baliz atio n b ut o f d ev elo pm en t. I n t h e l a te 1 950s, t h e f ie ld o f d ev elo pm en t w as d om in ate d b y t h e m odern iz a t io n s c h ool, w hic h c am e u nder a tta ck b y d ep en den cy t h eo rie s a n d o th er r a d ic al T hir d W orld a p pro ach es t o i n te rn atio nal i n eq ualitie s. B y t h e l a te 1 970s, w orld -s y ste m t h eo ry h ad b eco m e e sta b lis h ed a s a n a lte rn ativ e p ers p ectiv e f ro m w hic h t o e x am in e i s su es o f d ev elo p m en t a n d w orld i n eq ualitie s ( s e e e .g . R oberts a n d H ite , 2 000; S o, 1 990). W alle rs te in s c o lle ag ue t h e l a te G io van ni A rrig hi o bse rv ed t h at w orld -s y ste m s a n aly sis a s a d is tin ctiv e s o cio lo g ic al p ara d ig m e m erg ed a t l e ast 1 5 y ears b efo re t h e u se o f g lo baliz atio n a s a s ig ni f ie r t h at b la zed a cro ss t h e h ead lin es a n d e x plo ded a s a s u bje ct o f a cad em ic r e se arc h a n d p ublic atio n ( A rrig hi, 2 005: 3 3). T he p ara d ig m d id i n deed c o m e o f a g e i n t h e 1 970s a n d 1 980s. Y et w hat i s d is tin ctiv e t o w orld -s y ste m s t h eo ry i s n ot t h at i t a s b een a ro und l o nger t h an m ore r e cen t g lo baliz atio n s tu die s. R ath er, t h is p ara d ig m a n d c erta in ly W alle rs te in h im se lf t e n ds t o v ie w g lo baliz atio n n ot a s a r e cen t p hen om en on b ut a s v ir tu ally s y nony m ous w ith t h e b ir th a n d s p re ad o f w orld c ap ita lis m , c ir c a 1 500. I n dee d , W alle rs te in i s c re d ite d f o r h av in g r e in vig ora te d h is to ric al s o cio lo gy. I f o ne o f t h e h allm ark s ( a n d i n m y v ie w , s tr e n gth s) o f t h e w orld -s y ste m p ara d ig m i s i ts d eep ly h is to ric al f o cu s, i t a ls o r e p re s e n ts t h e p ro ble m atic n atu re o f t h e p ara d ig m i f i t i s s e en a s a t h eo ry o f g lo baliz atio n. O ne o f t h e k ey i s su es i n t h e g lo baliz atio n d eb ate , a n d o ne t h at c u ts t o o ne o f t h e u nder l y in g o nto lo gic al i s su es i n g lo baliz atio n s tu die s, i s w h en d oes g lo baliz a tio n b eg in ? W hat i s t h e t im e d im en sio n o f t h e p ro cess? H ow a t h eo ry a n sw ers t h is q uestio n w ill s h ap e e v en d ete rm in e w hat w e u nders ta n d w hen w e s p eak o f g lo baliz atio n, o r i f t h e t e rm a n d R obin so n 3 t h e p ro cess o f c h an ge i n h is to ric al s tr u ctu re s t h at t h e t e rm i s a ssu m ed t o e x plic ate i s w orth w hile , o r s im ply s u perflu ous a n d m is le ad in g. W e c an i d en tif y t h re e b ro ad a p pro ach es t o t h e t e m pora l q uestio n o f g lo baliz atio n a p ro cess t h at d ate s b ack t o t h e d aw n o f h is to ry , w ith a s u dden r e cen t a ccele ra tio n; a p ro cess c o te rm in ous w ith t h e s p re ad a n d d ev elo p m en t o f c ap ita lis m o ver t h e p ast 5 00 y ears ; a n d a r e cen t p hen om en on a sso cia te d w ith s o cia l c h an ge o f t h e l a te 2 0th a n d e arly 2 1st c en tu rie s. T he w orld -s y ste m p ara d ig m c le arly a rg ues t h e s e co nd o f t h ese . I n f a ct, a n um ber o f w orld -s y ste m t h eo ris ts s u ggeste d i n t h e 1 990s t h at t o t a lk o f g lo baliz atio n w as m ere ly t o r e in ven t t h e w heel ( s e e l a te r). W alle rs te in h im se lf d oes n ot s e e a n yth in g n ew i n g lo baliz atio n. T he p ro ponen ts o f w orld -s y ste m s a n aly sis , s ta te s W alle rs te in , h av e b een t a lk in g a b out g lo baliz atio n s in ce l o ng b efo re t h e w ord w as i n ven te d n ot, h ow ev er, a s s o m eth in g n ew b ut a s s o m eth in g t h at h as b een b asic t o t h e m odern w orld -s y ste m e v er s in ce i t b eg an i n t h e s ix te en th c en tu ry ( W alle rs te in , 2 004a: x ). M y o w n v ie w , a lb eit b rie fly , i s t h at t h e c u rre n t p erio d m ark s a q ualita tiv ely n ew e p och i n t h e o ngoin g e v olu tio n o f w orld c ap ita lis m , o ne t h at i n volv es c erta in d is c o ntin ui t ie s a n d q ualita tiv ely n ovel d im en sio ns t h at c an not b e e x pla in ed w ith in t h e w orld -s y ste m s p ara d ig m . I f g lo baliz atio n s im ply m ean s t h e o nly g eo gra p hic e x te n sio n o f m ate ria l a n d c u ltu ra l e x ch an ges t h en i t h as b een g oin g o n f o r t h ousa n ds o f y ears , a n d i f i t m ean s t h e s p re ad a n d d ev elo pm en t o f c ap ita lis m , i n clu din g t h at w hic h t h e c ap ita lis t s y ste m i m plie s, t h en i t h as b een g oin g o n f o r 5 00 y ears . I n m y o w n c o ncep tio n, I r e se rv e t h e t e rm g lo bal i z atio n t o r e fe r t o t h e n ovel c h an ges a sso cia te d w ith t h e p ast f e w d ecad es. T hese c h an ges i n volv e, t o r e ite ra te , q ualita tiv ely n ew d im en sio ns t h at t h e w orld -s y ste m p ara d ig m c an not a cco unt f o r g iv en t h e i m min en ce o f i ts c o re c o ncep ts , a s I d is c u ss l a te r, a lb eit b rie fly . W orld -s y ste m s t h eo ry s h are s w ith s e v era l o th er a p pro ach es t o g lo baliz atio n, m ost n ota b ly t h e g lo bal c ap ita lis m a p pro ach w ith w hic h I m yse lf a m i d en tif ie d ( R obin so n, 2 004a, 2 007), a c ritiq ue o f c ap ita lis m a s a n e x pan sio nary s y ste m t h at h as c o m e t o e n co m p ass t h e e n tir e w orld o ver t h e p ast 5 00 y ears . T hese d is tin ct t h eo rie s s h are a c o m mon g en ealo gy t h at t r a ces b ack t o M arx a n d h is c ritiq ue o f c ap ita lis m , a n d i n t u rn g re w o ut o f a l o ng t r a d itio n i n M arx is t a n d r a d ic al a n aly se s o f w orld c ap ita lis m d atin g b ack t o t h e w ritin gs o f L en in , H ilf e rd in g, R osa L uxem burg a n d o th er e arly 2 0th -c en tu ry t h eo ris ts o f i m peria lis m ( s e e, i n te r a lia , B re w er, 1 991; W ors le y, 1 977). B ut a cco unts o f w orld c ap i t a lis m a m ong r a d ic al a cad em ic s a n d p olitic al a cto rs b eg an t o d iv erg e i n t h e p ost- S eco nd W orld W ar p erio d. I n p artic u la r, m ore t r a d itio nally o rie n te d a p pro ach es f o llo w ed M arx s v ie w t h at c ap ita lis m w ould d ev elo p t h e f o rc es o f p ro ductio n w orld w id e a s i t s p re ad , w hile o th ers s a w t h e b ack w ard ness a n d u nderd ev elo pm en t o f s o m e r e g io ns o f t h e w orld a s t h e a lte r- e g o o f t h e a d van cem en t a n d d ev elo pm en t o f o th ers . A n um ber o f s c h ools e m erg ed t h at a rg ued t h at i t w as t h e v ery n atu re a n d d ynam ic s o f w orld c ap ita lis m t h at r e su lte d i n g lo bal i n eq ualitie s a m ong c o untr ie s a n d r e g io ns, b rin gin g a b out t h e d ev elo p m en t o f s o m e a n d t h e u nderd ev elo pm en t o f o th ers . T his v ie w w as f ir s t p ut f o rw ard b y t h e s tr u ctu ra l s c h ool o f R au l P re b is c h a n d t h e U nite d N atio ns E co nom ic C om mis sio n f o r L atin A m eric a i n t h e 1 950s a n d 1 960s, f o llo w ed b y m ore r a d ic al a n d e x plic itly n eo -M arx is t d ep en den cy t h eo ris ts o r t h e d ep en den tis ta s o f t h e 1 960s a n d 1 970s ( C hilc o te , 1 984). A t t h e s a m e t im e, r a d ic al i n te lle ctu als a n d p olitic al l e ad ers f ro m o th er p arts o f t h e T hir d W orld w ere r e ach in g s im ila r c o nclu sio ns, a m ong t h em , S am ir A m in a n d W alte r R odney, i n sp ir e d i n p art b y t h e L atin A m eric an s ( s e e e .g . A m in , 1 974; R odney, 1 981; W ors le y, 1 977). 4 In te rn atio nal S o cio lo gy I t w as i n t h is m ilie u t h at W alle rs te in f o rg ed h is d is tin ctiv e w orld -s y ste m t h eo ry , a s p art o f a b ro ad er i n te lle ctu al e x ch an ge w ith A m in a n d o th ers , i n clu din g A ndre G under F ra n k a n d T erre n ce H opkin s. W alle rs te in h ad h im se lf l iv ed i n F ra n ce a n d A fric a a n d b eg an h is c are er a s a n A fric an is t ( o n W alle rs te in s i n te lle ctu al b io gra p hy, s e e G old fra n k, 2 000). H is f ir s t m ajo r w ork , A fr ic a : T he P olitic s o f I n dep en den ce , b ecam e a n a cad em ic b ests e lle r. B ut w hat l a u nch ed t h e w orld -s y ste m p ara d ig m w as t h e p ublic atio n i n 1 974 o f t h e f ir s t v olu m e o f h is m ag nus o pus, T he M odern W orld -S yste m . T he f ir s t v olu m e, u nder t h e s u btitle C apita lis t A gric u ltu re a nd t h e O rig in s o f t h e E uro pea n W orld -E co nom y i n t h e S ix te en th C en tu ry , l a y s o ut t h e b asic p ostu la te s o f t h e t h eo ry . I t w as f o llo w ed b y a s e co nd v olu m e i n 1 980, s u btitle d M erc a ntilis m a nd t h e C onso lid atio n o f t h e E uro pea n W orld E co nom y, 1 600 1750 , a n d t h en a t h ir d v olu m e i n 1 988, T he S eco nd E ra o f G re a t E xp ansio n o f t h e C apita lis t W orld E co nom y, 1 730 1840s. W alle rs te in i s a r e m ark ab ly p ro lif ic w rite r a n d h as p ro duced d ozen s o f b ooks a n d h undre d s o f a rtic le s a n d e ssa y s. M ore r e cen t w ork s h av e c o ntin ued t o e la b ora te a n d r e fin e t h e w orld -s y ste m p ara d ig m , a n d t o a p ply i t t o a n a rra y o f c o nte m pora ry a n d h is to ric al p hen om en a ( s e e e sp . W alle rs te in , 2 000c, a c o lle ctio n o f e ssa y s s p an nin g s o m e 4 0 y ears ; s e e a ls o , i n te r a lia , W alle rs te in , 1 979, 1 998, 2 004a). O th er r e cen t w ork s h av e f o cu se d o n m atte rs o f m eth od, e p is te m ol o gy a n d o nto lo gy o f s o cia l s c ie n ce, p artic u la rly w ith h is c all f o r a u nif ic atio n o f t h e d is c ip lin es a n d o f h is to ry i n to a h is to ric al s o cia l s c ie n ce ( W alle rs te in , 2 001, 2 004b). I f t h e r a d ic al l ite ra tu re o n d ev elo pm en t w as o ne m ajo r i n flu en ce o n W alle rs te in s i d eas, t h e s e co nd w as t h e F re n ch A nnale s s c h ool t h at r e ach ed i ts z en ith i n t h e p ost- S ec o nd W orld W ar y ears , a n d i n p artic u la r, t h e t h ought o f i ts l e ad in g f ig ure s, F ern an d B ra u del. B ra u del h ad s o ught t o d ev elo p to ta l o r g lo bal h is to ry . B y t h is h e m ean t a n a p pro ach t o h is to ry t h at o bse rv es t h e t o ta lity o f t h e f ie ld o f s o cia l f o rc es, s o t h at h is to ry i s a ll- e m bra cin g a n d e m phasiz es t h e i n te rc o nnecte d ness o f w hat c o nven tio nal a p pro ach es c o nsid er t o b e d is tin ct h is to rie s. B ut B ra u del a ls o m ean s b y g lo bal h is to ry t h e s y nth esis o f h is to ry a n d s o cia l s c ie n ces t h ro ugh a n e m phasis o n t h e l o ngue d uré e ( th e l o ng t e rm ), w hat B ra u del a lte rn ativ ely r e fe rre d t o a s s tr u ctu ra l t im e i n h um an a ff a ir s . T he l o ngue d uré e i s a h is to ric al p ro cess i n w hic h a ll c h an ge i s s lo w , i n volv in g c o nsta n t r e p etitio n a n d r e cu rrin g c y cle s. I t i s o nly t h ro ugh t h e s tu dy o f t h e l o ng t e rm t h at t h e t o ta lity , t h e d eep est l a y ers o f s o cia l l if e , t h e s u bte rra n ean h is to ry , a n d t h e c o ntin uin g s tr u ctu re s o f h is to ric al r e ality a re r e v eale d . W alle rs te in h as p ush ed f u rth er t h is f u sio n o f h is to ry a n d s o cia l s c ie n ce, c allin g f o r a h is to ric a l s o cia l s c ie n ce t h at w ould r e u nif y h is to ry w ith s o cio lo gy, t h e o th er s o cia l s c i e n ces a n d t h e h um an itie s, a n d t h at w ould o pera te o n a g lo bal s c ale . T w o o f t h e h allm ark s o f w orld -s y ste m a p pro ach es a re t h e t r a n sd is c ip lin ary n atu re o f m uch r e se arc h a n d t h e d eep ly h is to ric al p ers p ectiv e i t b rin gs t o b ear o n r e se arc h . I n 1 976, W alle rs te in a n d s e v e ra l o f h is c o lle ag ues e sta b lis h ed t h e F ern an d B ra u del C en te r f o r t h e S tu dy o f E co nom ie s, H is to ric al S yste m s, a n d C iv iliz atio n a t t h e S ta te U niv ers ity o f N ew Y ork a t B in gham to n. A cco rd in g t o t h e C en te r s f o undin g s ta te m en t: [The Center] exists to engage in the analysis of lar ge-scale social change over long periods of historical time. W e operate on two assumptions. One is that there is no structure that is not historical. In order to understand a structure one must not only know its genesis and its context; one must also assume that its form and its substance are constantly evolving. The second R obin so n 5 assumption is that no sequence of events in time is structureless, that is, fortuitous. Every event occurs within existing structures, and is af fected by its constraints. Every event creates part of the context of future events. Of course, there are ruptures in structures which represent fundamental change. But such ruptures too are explicable in terms of the state of the structures. W e therefore do not separate the study of historical sequence and the study of structural relationships. 1 The modern w orld-system W orld -s y ste m t h eo ry a s e la b ora te d b y W alle rs te in s ta rts w ith t h e p ro positio n t h at t h e a p pro pria te u nit o f a n aly sis f o r m acro so cia l i n quir y i n t h e m odern w orld i s n eith er c la ss, n or s ta te /s o cie ty , o r c o untr y , b ut t h e l a rg er h is to ric al s y ste m , i n w hic h t h ese c ate g orie s a re l o cate d . T he d efin in g b oundarie s o f a h is to ric al s y ste m a re t h ose w ith in w hic h t h e s y ste m a n d t h e p eo ple w ith in i t a re r e g ula rly r e p ro duced b y m ean s o f s o m e k in d o f o ngo i n g d iv is io n o f l a b or. C en tr a l t o t h e i d ea o f a h is to ric al s y ste m i s t h e d iv is io n o f l a b or a c o re c o ncep t i n t h e s o cia l s c ie n ces. T he e x is te n ce o f a d iv is io n o f l a b or i m plie s s p ecia l i z ed w ork r o le s a m ong i n div id uals a n d g ro ups a lo ng w it h t h e c o ord in atio n o r s y nch ro ni z atio n o f t h ese d if f e re n t r o le s, o r l a b or a ctiv itie s. H en ce, t h e d iv is io n o f l a b or n atu ra lly f o rm s t h e o ute r b oundarie s o f a n y s o cia l o rd er i n t h at i t s e ts t h e b oundarie s f o r a n d s o cia l r e la tio ns a n d i n te rd ep en den cie s. I n h um an h is to ry , W alle rs te in a rg ues, t h ere h av e b een t h re e k now n f o rm s o f h is to ric al s y ste m s: m in i- s y ste m s , a n d w orld -s y ste m s o f t w o k in ds w orld -e m pir e s a n d w orld e co nom ie s . M in i- s y ste m s l a rg ely c o rre sp ond t o t h e p re -a g ric u ltu ra l e ra . T hey a re s e lf c o nta in ed s y ste m s t h at t e n d t o b e s m all i n s p ace a n d b rie f i n t im e. T hey a re g en era lly s u bsis te n ce e co nom ie s, g overn ed b y t h e l o gic o f r e cip ro city i n e x ch an ge. M in i- s y ste m s w ere h ig hly h om ogen eo us i n t e rm s o f c u ltu ra l a n d g overn in g s tr u ctu re s a n d t h ey s p lit u p w hen t h ey b ecam e t o o l a rg e. W orld -s y ste m s d o n ot e x hib it t h is h om ogen eity . F or W alle rs te in , a w orld -s y ste m i s a n e co nom ic e n tity n ot c ir c u m sc rib ed b y p olitic al o r c u l t u ra l b oundarie s, a n d i s a s e lf -c o nta in ed s o cia l s y ste m . W orld -e m pir e s w ere t h e d om i n an t f o rm o f h is to ric al s y ste m s f ro m t h e e arlie st c iv iliz atio ns u ntil a b out 1 500 a d . T he d efin in g c h ara cte ris tic i s a s in gle p olitic al c en te r o r s tr u ctu re e n co m passin g a n e x te n siv e d iv is io n o f l a b or a n d a w id e r a n ge o f c u ltu ra l p atte rn s. W orld -e m pir e s o pera te d t h ro ugh t h e e x tr a ctio n o f t r ib ute , o r s u rp lu s, f ro m o th erw is e l o cally s e lf -a d m in is te re d c o m muni t ie s o f p ro du cers t h at w as p asse d u pw ard t o t h e c en te r a n d r e d is tr ib ute d t o a n etw ork o f o ff ic ia ls . I n t u rn , a w orld -e co nom y i n volv es v ast, u nev en c h ain s o f i n te g ra te d p ro ductio n s tr u ctu re s b ro ught t o geth er t h ro ugh a c o m ple x d iv is io n o f l a b or a n d e x te n siv e c o m mer c ia l e x ch an ge. T his m ay b e t r u e o f a w orld -e m pir e a s w ell. F or W alle rs te in , t h e b oundarie s o f a w orld -s y ste m a re f o rm ed b y t h e e x te n t a n d r e ach o f a g iv en s o cia l d iv is io n o f l a b or. F or i n sta n ce, t h e R om an E m pir e w as a w orld -s y ste m , i n t h at a ll o f t h e l a n ds a n d p eo ple s e n co m passe d w ith in i ts r e alm s p artic ip ate d i n a s in gle e m pir e -w id e d iv is io n o f l a b or, a n d w ere c o nnecte d b y s p ecia liz ed r e g io nal r o le s a n d e co n om ic c o ntr ib utio ns, a n d t r a d in g n etw ork s a m ong t h em . I n W alle rs te in s o w n w ord s, a w orld -s y ste m i s a s p atia l/te m pora l z o ne w hic h c u ts a cro ss m an y p olitic al a n d c u ltu ra l u nits , o ne t h at r e p re se n ts a n i n te g ra te d z o ne o f a ctiv ity a n d i n stitu tio ns w hic h o bey c er t a in s y ste m ic r u le s ( W alle rs te in , 2 004a: 1 7). I n t u rn , W alle rs te in d is tin guis h ed b etw een 6 In te rn atio nal S o cio lo gy t w o t y pes o f w orld -s y ste m s. O ne i s w orld -e m pir e s, i n w hic h t h ere i s a s in gle p olitic al b oundary . H en ce t h e R om an w orld -s y ste m w as a w orld -e m pir e . I n d is tin ctio n, a w orld -e co nom y i s a w orld -s y ste m t h at h as m ultip le p olitic al c en te rs r a th er t h an a s in gle p olitic al c en te r o r b ound a ry . T he p ecu lia r s tr e n gth o f t h e m odern o r c a pita lis t w orld -s y ste m i s t h at i t h as n ot t r a n sfo rm ed i n to a w orld -e m pir e , w hic h w ould i m ply a s in gle p olitic al s y ste m o r c en te r. T he c ap ita lis t w orld -e co nom y t h at e m erg ed f ro m c ir c a 1 500 a n d o n e x pan ded t o c o ver t h e e n tir e g lo be, a b so rb in g i n t h e p ro cess a ll e x is tin g m in i- s y ste m s a n d w orld -e m pir e s, e sta b lis h in g m ark et a n d p ro ductio n n etw ork s t h at e v en tu ally b ro ught a ll p eo ple s a ro und t h e w orld i n to i ts l o gic a n d i n to a s in gle w orld w id e s tr u ctu re . H en ce, b y t h e l a te 1 9th c en t u ry t h ere w as b ut o ne h is to ric al s y ste m t h at h ad c o m e t o e n co m pass t h e e n tir e g lo be, t h e c a pita lis t w orld -s y ste m . I t i s i n t h is s e n se t h at w orld -s y ste m t h eo ry c an b e s e en a s a t h eo ry o f g lo baliz atio n e v en i f i ts p rin cip al a d here n ts r e je ct t h e t e rm g lo baliz atio n ( s e e l a te r). A s W alle rs te in l a y s o ut i n V olu m e I o f T he M odern W orld -S yste m , t h e m odern w orld s y ste m a s a c a pita lis t w orld -s y ste m c am e i n to b ein g d urin g t h e lo ng s ix te en th c en tu ry o f 1 450 1640 o ut o f t h e g en era l c ris is o f E uro pean f e u dalis m t h at b eg an i n t h e 1 4th c en t u ry . S tr u ctu re s a re t h ose c o ra l r e efs o f h um an r e la tio ns w hic h h av e a s ta b le e x is te n ce o ver r e la tiv ely l o ng p erio ds o f t im e , s ta te s W alle rs te in . B ut s tr u ctu re s t o o a re b orn , d ev elo p, a n d d ie . . . t h e s tu dy o f s o cia l c h an ge . . . s h ould b e r e str ic te d t o t h e s tu dy o f c h an ges i n t h ose p hen om en a w hic h a re m ost d ura b le ( 1 974: 3 ). H e t h en g oes o n t o p ro c la im t w o g re at w ate rs h ed s i n t h e h is to ry o f m an . . . t h e s o -c alle d N eo lith ic o r a g ric u l t u ra l r e v olu tio n. T he o th er g re at w ate rs h ed i s t h e c re atio n o f t h e m odern w orld ( 1 974: 3 ). P rio r t o t h e c re atio n o f t h is E uro pean -c en te re d w orld -s y ste m t h ere w ere a n um ber o f w orld -e co nom ie s a n d w orld -e m pir e s a ro und t h e p la n et, i n clu din g t h e M ed ite rra n ean w orld -e co nom y, t h e I n dia n O cean R ed S ea c o m ple x , t h e C hin ese r e g io n, t h e C en tr a l A sia n l a n d m ass f ro m M ong olia t o R ussia a n d t h e B altic a re a, a m ong o th ers ( W alle rs te in , 1 974: 1 7). B ut t h e E uro pean w orld -e co nom y d id a w ay w it h t h ese o th er w orld -e co nom ie s a n d w orld -e m pir e s t h ro ugh i ts o w n e x pan sio n. E m erg in g c ap ita lis t e lite s ( m erc h an ts , f in an cie rs , p olitic al e lite s) f ro m P ortu gal, l a te r S pain , H olla n d, E ngla n d, F ra n ce a n d e ls e w here , e x pan ded o utw ard i n p urs u it o f n ew e co nom ic o pportu nitie s. T his e x pan sio n w as m ad e p ossib le b y t h e d ev elo pm en t o f s tr o ng s ta te s i n t h e c o re o f t h e e m erg in g c ap ita li s t w orld -e co nom y. I n W este rn E uro pe, c en tr a liz ed m onarc h ie s r e p la ced f e u dal f ie fs , w hic h w ere t h en r e p la ced b y m odern n atio n-s ta te s. T hese s ta te s d efe n ded t h e i n te re sts o f t h eir e lite c la sse s a n d p la y ed a k ey r o le i n c o nstr u ctin g t h e s tr u ctu re s o f t h e m odern w orld s y ste m . T hey f ir s t c o lo niz ed t h e A m eric as a n d e co nom ic ally i n co rp ora te d E aste rn E uro pe i n to a l a rg er s in gle A tla n tic w orld -e co nom y. W ith e ach e x pan sio n n ew r e g io ns w ere b ro ught i n to t h e s y ste m . T he s y ste m c o ntin ued t o e x pan d, e v en tu ally i n co rp ora tin g t h e e n tir e p la n et a n d b eco m in g, b etw een 1 815 a n d 1 917, a t r u ly g lo bal e n te rp ris e . T his c ap ita lis t w orld -s y ste m i s c h ara cte riz ed b y e co nom ic d om in an ce o f t h e p la n et, n ot b y a n y s in gle p olitic al o r c u ltu ra l s y ste m ( b ut s e e l a te r c o m men ts o n W alle rs te in s n otio n o f g eo cu ltu re a n d m y c o m men ta ry ). Structur es and pr ocesses of the modern w orld-system A k ey s tr u ctu re o f t h e c ap ita lis t w orld -s y ste m b eco m es t h e d iv is io n o f t h e w orld i n to t h re e g re at r e g io ns, o r h ie ra rc h ic ally o rg an iz ed t i e rs . T he f ir s t i s t h e c o re , o r t h e p ow erfu l R obin so n 7 a n d d ev elo ped c en te rs o f t h e s y ste m , o rig in al c o m pris e d o f W este rn E uro pe a n d l a te r e x pan ded t o i n clu de t h e U nite d S ta te s a n d J a p an . T he s e co nd i s t h e p erip hery t h ose r e g io ns t h at h av e b een f o rc ib ly s u bord in ate d t o t h e c o re t h ro ugh c o lo nia lis m o r o th er m ean s, a n d i n t h e f o rm ativ e y ears o f t h e c ap ita lis t w orld -s y ste m w ould i n clu de L atin A m eric a, A fric a, A sia a n d E aste rn E uro pe. T hir d i s t h e s e m i- p erip hery , c o m pris e d o f t h ose s ta te s a n d r e g io ns t h at w ere p re v io usly i n t h e c o re a n d a re m ovin g d ow n i n t h is h ie ra rc h y, s u ch a s t h e I b eria n c o untr ie s f o llo w in g t h eir 1 6th -c en tu ry h ey day, o r t h ose t h at w ere p re v io usly i n t h e p erip hery a n d a re m ovin g u p, s u ch a s I ta ly i n e arlie r c en tu rie s, R ussia f o llo w in g t h e S ovie t r e v olu tio n, o r m or

Needs help with similar assignment?

We are available 24x7 to deliver the best services and assignment ready within 3-4 hours? Order a custom-written, plagiarism-free paper

Order Over WhatsApp Place an Order Online

Do you have an upcoming essay or assignment due?

All of our assignments are originally produced, unique, and free of plagiarism.

If yes Order Similar Paper