Your Essay Outline worksheet should include: Worksheet attached to the question where you need to put your answer make sure to fulfill the requirements as well as make sure all questions are answered

Your Essay Outline worksheet should include: Worksheet attached to the question where you need to put your answer

make sure to fulfill the requirements as well as make sure all questions are answered from the attached article(Memory of love for mother a comparison.pdf)

1. A thesis statement: Based on the concepts you identify in the article and how they relate to biology and behavior.

2. Identify and define 2 psychological concepts and how they are used in the article.

3. A summary:  (in your own words) of the article with relevant information about the psychological concept, their research question, the research method, (procedures, tests, sample/population), and major findings.

4. Evaluation: What 2 things do you find interesting about this article?

5. Skeleton of Conclusion: In your conclusion, you need to have an idea of how all your research helps your thesis statement.

Your Essay Outline worksheet should include: Worksheet attached to the question where you need to put your answer make sure to fulfill the requirements as well as make sure all questions are answered
Cognition, Language, and Development Black American College Students Report Higher Memory of Love for Mothers in Childhood Than White Students Lawrence Patihis , Corai E. Jackson, Jonathan C. Diaz, Elena V. Stepanova, and Mario E. Herrera Department of Psychology, University of Southern Mississippi, MS, USA Abstract Cultural differences between Black and White individuals in the South are con- nected to the inequitable history of the United States. We wondered if these cultural differences would translate to a particularly precious aspect of life: memories of love felt in childhood toward one s parents. Some past studies have shown that Whites score higher on parental attachment measures to parents than Blacks, while other studies show no significant differences. However, no previous study has ever measured memory of feelings of love in relation to differences between ethnicities. In this study, Black (n¼124) and White (n¼125) undergraduates self- reported the strength and frequency of their past feelings of love toward their mother and father in first, sixth, and ninth grade as well as their current feelings of love. Results suggested that Black students reported feeling more love for their mothers in first, sixth, and ninth grades compared to White students. These findings were not explained when we statistically adjusted for age, gender, socioeconomic status, education levels, income, number of years spent living with mother or father, stress, or personality. Therefore, this relationship may be explained by unmeasured or unmeasurable cultural differences. The direction of this effect was in the opposite direction from what we expected based on past attachment research. Given the inequities in U.S. history and the current discussions around ethnicity and race in the United States, the finding that Blacks reported higher remembered feelings of love for their mothers in childhood is intriguing and worthy of dissemination and discussion. Psychological Reports 2019, Vol. 122(3) 880 898 !The Author(s) 2018 Article reuse guidelines: DOI: 10.1177/0033294118772549 Corresponding Author: Lawrence Patihis, Department of Psychology, University of Southern Mississippi, 118 College Drive #5025, Hattiesburg, MS 39406, USA. Email: [email protected] Keywords Love, emotion, memory, Black, White, ethnicity Introduction The history of the South of the United States is marred with the inequalities between Black or African-American (hereafter Black ) individuals and White American (hereafter White ) individuals. First slavery and then the Jim Crow era have had a lingering eect on the respective cultures of Black and White individuals, and that may be especially true in the South of the United States. These eects may have transferred to cultural dierences in childhood experi- ences, strategies in raising ospring, and as a result diering bonds and feelings between parents and ospring. In particular, we wondered if this cultural diver- sity has resulted in dierences in an especially precious aspect of our lives: feelings of love and memories of love toward parents during our childhoods. To our knowledge, no past research has measured this with regard to race or ethnicity. Nevertheless, we know that some measures of attachment correlate with the subscales of the Memory of Love towards Parents Questionnaire (MLPQ; Patihis, Herrera, & Arnau, 2018), and hence we will review previous research that has investigated dierences in parental attachment in Black versus White individuals (e.g., Bakermans-Kranenburg, Ijzendoorn, & Kroonenberg, 2004; Giordano, Cernkovich, & DeMaris, 1993; Haggerty, Skinner, McGlynn- Wright, Catalano, & Crutch eld, 2013). In this study, we set out to investigate whether there are dierences between Black and White individuals in their memory of feelings of love toward parents while collecting a number of possible covariate measures that may explain any dierences between Black and White individuals. Race and parental attachment Although we found no past research on race and ethnicity and memory of feelings of love in childhood, we found research on parental attachment in Black and White individuals which could help form hypotheses. Although there is a wider literature on attachment among other ethnic and racial cate- gories (e.g., Emmen et al., 2013; Mesman, IJzendoorn, & Bakermans- Kranenburg, 2012), in the review below we focus on research on Black and White individuals. We found mixed results: rst we discuss the literature in which Blacks scored lower on parental attachment scales, then results showing no signi cant dierences and then discuss research indicating Black individuals scored higher on secure attachment. Lower scores on parental attachment scales in Blacks.Some research has shown that young Black children are less securely attached than White children Patihis et al.881 (e.g., Bakermans-Kranenburg et al., 2004). Bakermans-Kranenburg et al. (2004) observed families from 10 dierent locations in the United States (142 Black and 1002 White). Attachment between the children and mothers was measured with the Attachment Q-Sort which is a description of 90 behaviors in the natural home setting (Waters, 1995). The researchers found Black mothers showed less sensitivity responding to their infant during the child s rst two years, and Black children s attachment security at two years of age was signi cantly lower than White children. Bakermans-Kranenburg et al. (2004) suggest that the socio- economic status (SES) dierences between the two groups account for this: speci cally that poverty may hamper maternal sensitivity to young children, and that maternal insensitivity in turn leads to lower rates of secure attachment. Rice, Cunningham, and Young (1997) found that Black college students in the South of the United States scored lower on a care from father subscale of the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI; Parker, Tupling, & Brown, 1979) compared to the White students but found no signi cant dierences among Black and White adolescents in other comparisons (i.e., PBI subscales for care of mothers and protection of mother or father). Rice et al. (1997) oered explanations for these dierences between Black and White individuals by discussing the factor of diering percentages of mother-only households. The researchers found that attachment to fathers was important because it was related to the subsequent development of social competences in the child. Utilizing a sample of college students in the Midwest of the United States, Wei, Russell, Mallinckrodt, and Zakalik (2004) did not measure parental attach- ment directly but found that attachment avoidance in romantic relationships was higher in Black compared to White college students. However, Black and White participants scored similarly on attachment anxiety (Wei et al., 2004; Experiences in Close Relationship Scale: Brennan, Clark, & Shaver, 1998). Wei et al. (2004) suggest that one interpretation of these results is dierences (and similarities) in the acculturation process of Black and White Americans. They also posit that adjustment issues and cultural mistrust might mitigate adult attachments to peers for Black students in a predominantly White Midwestern university. Comparable attachment in Black and White individuals.Other research has found similar attachment scores in Black and White individuals. For example, Dexter, Wong, Stacks, Beeghly, and Barnett (2013) utilized the strange situation (Ainsworth, Blehar, Waters, & Wall, 1978) and laboratory observation with Black and White preschool children from the Midwest of the United States. Dexter et al. (2013) found that race was not a strong determinant of attachment in low-income preschoolers, although they noted a nonsigni cant trend (p¼.093) whereby 41% of White preschoolers were securely attached, while 32% of Black preschoolers were. In Haggerty et al. (2013), Black and White adolescents scored similarly on parent attachment. 882Psychological Reports 122(3) Higher scores on parental attachment scales in Black individuals.Nevertheless, Cernkovich and Giordano (1987) found that Black adolescents in the Midwest of the United States scored higher on one measure related to attachment: self-reported perceptions caring and trust in their relationship with their parents but showed no dierences on intimacy communication. Apparently utilizing the same sample, Giordano et al. (1993) found that Black adolescents reported higher levels of self-reported intimacy within the family compared to White adolescents (adjusting for age and SES). The researchers discuss how their nd- ings depart from previous de cit-oriented cultural research that suggested lower parental attachment in Black youths. This study The previous research on attachment and race that we reviewed has shown mixed results with a tentative trend toward Black individuals scoring lower on some parental attachment measures. We did nd one exception (Giordano et al., 1993), but that dataset was not collected in the South of the United States (unlike the this study). The article that did nd lower attachment in Black young children (Bakermans-Kranenburg et al., 2004) sampled from the multiple regions of the United States. When pairing this trend with our own ndings (Patihis et al., 2018) that the memory of love measure (MLPQ) correlates positively with some parental attachment measures, we would expect that Black college students may report lower scores on the MLPQ compared to White students. While making that prediction, we also measure possible variables that vary across cultures and may explain dierences between the Black and White groups. These possible explanatory variables include self-reported SES, income, stress, childhood trauma, dierences in the number of years of parental contact in childhood, and years of education. We also include measures to control for other factors such as socioeconomic, biological, aective, clinical, and memory-bias factors. If we do nd dierences in the memory of love experienced in childhood in Black and White individuals, we posit that these dierences will be predominantly due to cultural factors. Method Participants For this study, 280 undergraduates in the South of the United States partici- pated for course credit (M age ¼21.5 years,SD¼5.58; range 18 52). Of these participants, 125 self-identi ed as White, 124 as African American or Black (referred to as Black hereafter for brevity), 16 Asian, 8 Hispanic or Latino, 1 American Indian or Native Alaskan, 1 Native Hawaiian or Paci c Islander, Patihis et al.883 and 6 as other please specify. Here, we compared only Black and White par- ticipants in this article (N¼249). Of these 249 students, 208 (83.5%) were female (106 Black and 102 White females). The study was approved for human subjects (IRB #16011902; USM). Measures Self-reported demographic measures were taken, including gender, age, race/ ethnicity, American College Testing (ACT) scores, mother and father s educa- tional and income levels, and SES. In addition, in-depth parental background questions asking about the participants mother and father were presented (e.g., the number of years spent living with each parent during childhood, whether each parent is the biological parent or not, whether the parents are separated). Positive and Negative Affect Schedule.Participants completed the Positive and Negative Aect Schedule (PANAS) 20-item short form (Watson, Clark, & Tellegen, 1988). The PANAS consists of two 10-item scales representing negative and positive current mood/aect. Each 10-item subscale has high internal reli- ability (Cronbach s s>.84) and the two subscales are not highly correlated (rs<.23 in magnitude; Watson et al., 1988). In our dataset, the negative PANAS subscale items had high internal reliability ( ¼.93), as did the positive subscale items ( ¼.91). The two subscales, positive and negative, correlated with a low eect size in our dataset (r¼.17,p¼.012). Memory of Love towards Parents Questionnaire.To assess the participant s memory of love for each parent during childhood, we utilized the MLPQ (for devel- opment and psychometrics, see Patihis et al., 2018). In the MLPQ, participants are asked to recall their love for both their mother and father (separately) during the rst, sixth, and ninth grades (K-12 schooling grades) and to also rate their current feelings of love. There are 28 items used in each of the eight subscales of the long-form MLPQ. Of the 28 items, half ask participants about thefrequencyof their feelings of love, aection, and so forth, while the other half of the items inquire about thestrengthof the feeling. For instance, one frequency-item reads, During the whole year when you werein rst grade, how often on averagedid you feelwarmthtoward yourmother? As an example of a strength-item, one question read, During the whole year when you were in rst grade,how strong on averagewas youraectiontoward yourFather? (bold and italics as in the original). In Patihis et al. (2018), we found good test retest reliability of each subscale (rs>.85), and an expected pattern of correlation with corresponding related attachment measures (ranger¼.10 to .77), and little evidence of order eects. Factor analyses (see Patihis et al., 2018) revealed a distinct and single factor within each MLPQ subscale, and 884Psychological Reports 122(3) that these factors were all distinct from any factors loading on a variety of parental attachment measures. Within each subscale of the MLPQ, we found good internal reliability (Cronbach s s>.95) in the dataset of the current study. Traumatic Experiences Checklist.We utilized the Traumatic Experiences Checklist (TEC) (Nijenhuis, Spinhoven, Van Dyck, Van dar hart, & Vanderlinden, 1998; Nijenhuis, Van der Hart, & Kruger, 2002) because it pro- vides a good measure of overall trauma. The self-report questions con- tained short statements of a traumatic event, and the participants were asked whether they had experienced that traumatic event and how it aected them. One example of a statement is: Sexual abuse (unwanted sexual acts involving physical contact) by your parents, brothers, or sisters. After each statement, the participants are asked Did this happen to you? , how old they were when the trauma happened, and How much impact did this have on you? on a scale from 1 to 5 (1¼none,2¼a little bit,3¼a moderate amount,4¼quite a bit,and 5¼an extreme amount). These items are scored to count trauma from childhood (ages 0 18) and to take into account high self-reported impact (for TEC scoring see Nijenhuis et al., 1998. Speci c subscales of the TEC include the participants total trauma score and subscales calculated from the sum of items asking about emotional neglect, emotional abuse, bodily threat, sexual harassment, and sexual abuse. Perceived Stress Scale.The short-form four-item Perceived Stress Scale (Cohen, Kamarck, & Mermelstein, 1983) was used in our study. In Cohen et al. (1983), they found the four-item scale had good internal reliability ( ¼.72) and test retest reliability was .55. The researchers found the four-item short-form scale to be valid with respect to its correlation with stress-relieving activity (e.g., cigarette use). The scale demonstrated good reliability and validity (with relevant correl- ates such as life-events, social anxiety, and depressive symptoms). In the current dataset, we found the internal reliability to be good within the four items ( ¼.75). Beck Depression Inventory.The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) is a 21-item self- report inventory used to measure depressive symptoms in adolescents and adults (Beck, Ward, Mendelson, Mock, & Erbaugh, 1961). Some items on the inven- tory measure depressive feelings (e.g., deep and prolonged sadness) and various symptoms of depression (e.g., loss of pleasure). Participants rate themselves on a scale of 0 (not experiencing the symptom)to3(experiencing to a great degree). The scores are summed and can range from 0 to 63, with higher numbers sug- gesting more depressive symptoms. The BDI has shown evidence for convergent validity: correlating with the Zung Self-reported Depression Scale (range Patihis et al.885 .62 .83, Beck, Steer, & Carbin, 1988; Zung, 1965). The BDI also has a high reliability rating with an average Cronbach s of .87 as well as a test retest reliability ranging from .60 to .90 (Beck et al., 1988). In the current dataset, we found that 21 items of the BDI had high internal reliability ( ¼.88). State Trait Inventory for Cognitive and Somatic Anxiety.The State Trait Inventory for Cognitive and Somatic Anxiety (STICSA) (Gro ¨s, Antony, Simms, & McCabe, 2007; Ree, French, MacLeod, & Locke, 2008) was created to measure mental (cognitive) and physical (somatic) anxiety in the moment (state) as well as a per- sistent trait anxiety. It consists of four subscales: trait-cognitive, trait-somatic, state-cognitive, and trait-somatic. Ree et al. (2008) found undergraduate stu- dents scored means ranging from 13 to 19 (their Table 4). In clinical populations with disorders related to anxiety, the subscale means ranged from 20 to 29 (Gro ¨s et al., 2007, their Table 5). The STICSA was found to have high internal con- sistency, with Cronbach s of subscales ranging from of .75 to .92 (clinical sample range .87 to .92, Gro ¨s et al., 2007; undergraduate range .75 to .84). Test retest reliability (taken several weeks apart; Ree et al., 2008, Study 3) was found to be higher in the trait anxiety subscales (cognitiver¼.66, somatic r¼.60) compared to the state anxiety scales (cognitiver¼.49; somaticr¼.31). These researchers also established the validity of the STICSA in both under- graduates and clinical samples. For example, the STISCA trait subscales correl- ate more with the trait subscale of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (Spielberger, 1983) compared to the state subscale, and vice versa (undergradu- ates, Ree et al., 2008; clinical sample, Gro ¨s et al., 2007). In the current dataset, the internal consistency of each subscale was as follows: State: ¼.91 and Trait: ¼.92. Big Five Inventory.The Big Five Inventory (BFI-10) (Rammstedt & John, 2007) is a short 10-item abbreviated version of the BFI-44 (John, Donahue, & Kentle, 1991). The BFI-10 retains good internal consistency (correlations with BFI-44 factors ranging from .74 .89), test retest reliability (.72), and convergent validity with the NEO-PI-R (Costa & McCrae, 1992), with an averager¼.71 across the ve factors. Single-Item Narcissism Scale.Using just a single item: To what extent do you agree with this statement: I am a narcissist . (Note: the word narcissist means egotistical, self-focused, and vain.), Konrath, Meier, and Bushman (2014) established acceptable psychometric properties. The seven-point Likert- type scale ranges from 1¼not very true of meto 7¼very true of me. Konrath et al. (2014) found high test retest reliability of .78, correlates with several existing narcissism measures (ranger¼.28 .50), is predictive of related out- comes such as risk-taking (r¼.19), hostility (r¼.34), short-term mating orien- tation (r¼.34), and less prosocial behavior. 886Psychological Reports 122(3) Procedure Participants were recruited online using SONA Research Systems, an online management and participation recruitment tool. Of the 249 students, 165 (88 Black and 77 White) participated in the laboratory, while 84 (36 Black and 48 White) participated online at a place of their choosing (most at home). We found that lab-based versus online participation had no eect on MLPQ scores (Patihis et al., 2018). Both online and in-laboratory participants participated for two sessions. For both sessions, online participants were encouraged to set aside at least an hour of their time and nd a quiet location free from any distractions. In the laboratory setting, a computer was used for the participants to complete the study on. When participants entered the laboratory, a research assistant informed the participant about the study and that the survey would take no longer than an hour to complete. Soon after this brief introduction, the partici- pant was seated and could begin. Once participants began the study, they rst read a study information sheet, demographic questions, background questions about parents, and the 28 MLPQ items. At the conclusion of the study, the participants read a debrie ng sheet. Following each participant s completion of the study, they were compensated for their time with class credit on the SONA Research Systems. The session had a median duration of 44 minutes. The majority of the data presented in this study were collected in the rst session detailed above. However, a few variables were collected one week later in the second session (e.g., variables such as BDI, BFI-10, and Single-Item Narcissism Scale). The MLPQ subscales were also again lled out for psycho- metric purposes during this session (results reported in Patihis, et al., 2018). This second session had a medium duration of 39 minutes. Results Black participants had signi cantly higher scores on the MLPQ subscales for their mothers in the rst, sixth, and ninth grades compared to White partici- pants. Figure 1 illustrates the pattern of results. Speci cally, Black college stu- dents reported higher scores on memory of love for their mothers in the rst grade (M¼5.37,SD¼0.86) than White students (M¼4.98,SD¼1.16), t(242)¼ 3.07,p¼.002, Cohen sd¼.38. Black students also reported higher memory of love for their mothers in the sixth grade (M¼4.99,SD¼1.22) than White students (M¼4.44,SD¼1.40),t(242)¼ 3.26,p¼.001,d¼.41. In add- ition, Black participants reported higher memory of love scores for their mothers in the ninth grade (M¼4.65,SD¼1.42) than White students (M¼4.17, SD¼1.56),t(242)¼ 2.50,p¼.013,d¼.32. There were no signi cant dier- ences between Black and White participants on the father MLPQ subscales. We conducted a hierarchical linear regression to examine these relationships further, statistically adjusting for numerous theoretically and empirically Patihis et al.887 relevant factors. See Table 1 for our analysis of possible covariates of the rela- tionship between race and memory of love for one s mother during rst grade. Controlling for demographics, SES, years of shared residence with mother during childhood (and father), biological, and a number variables of possible memory biases. When statistically adjusted in the regression analysis, none of these variables eliminated the statistically signi cant relationship between race and memory of love toward mothers during rst grade. Age, childhood house- hold income, years of shared residence with mother during childhood, current appraisals of mother, and depressive symptoms were all signi cant predictors of MLPQ for mothers at rst grade. But none of these signi cant predictors reduced the regression coe cient for race. In fact, controlling for socioeco- nomic factors lead to an increase from ¼.19 to .24, and then controlling for potential memory biases (such as depression and current appraisals) reduced it back down to ¼.19. See also Table S1 in the Supplemental Materials that establishes that additional variables also do not explain the relationship between race and memory of love for mothers: such as a measure of academic achieve- ment (ACT scores), recent successes and failures, Big Five personality traits, perceived stress, and exposure to traumatic experiences in childhood. Similar patterns were found in Tables S2 and S3, for memory of love for mothers during sixth grade. As shown in Table S2, the relationship between race and memory of love remained signi cant and of similar eect size ( .2) when controlling for all the aforementioned variables in the model. One dierence, when compared to the MLPQ rst grade regression, is that household income during childhood was a signi cant predictor, but when adjusting for household 4.98 4.44 4.17 5.37 4.98 4.65 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0 5.5 6.0 Grade 1 Grade 6 Grade 9 Memory of Love Towards Mothers White Black Figure 1.Memory of love toward mother means scores for Black and White college stu- dents for various points in childhood (MLPQ subscales). Mean scores are given above each bar. The differences between Black and White participants were statistically significant in each subscale shown. Error bars represent standard error of the mean. 888Psychological Reports 122(3) Table 1.Hierarchical regression on memory of love for mothers during first grade: Race (Black and White) remains a significant predictor when adjusting for demographics, SES, familial differences, and covariates. Predictors pVIFR 2 Adjusted R 2 Change R 2 Model 1: Demographics.056 .044 .056** Black or White .188 .003 1.003 Age .139 .026 1.002 Gender .011 .862 1.004 Model 2: SES Factors.227 .201 .171*** Black or White .242<.001 1.193 Age .068 .252 1.091 Gender .024 .675 1.026 Socioeconomic status .007 .914 1.129 Mother s level of education .012 .851 1.230 Household income childhood .196 .004 1.436 0 18, years with mother .382<.001 1.094 0 18, years with father .096 .128 1.231 Model 3: Bio and Memory Biases.478 .442 .251*** Black or White .189 .001 1.408 Age .034 .520 1.218 Gender .002 .965 1.102 Socioeconomic status .055 .304 1.262 Mother s level of education .002 .975 1.254 Household income childhood .085 .153 1.553 0 18, years with mother .284<.001 1.181 0 18, years with father .064 .233 1.272 Biological Hours of sleep last night .009 .866 1.148 Caffeine in last 24 hours .031 .551 1.214 Alcohol in last 24 hours .079 .109 1.081 Self-reported health .056 .279 1.199 Memory biases Current appraisal of mother .464<.001 1.289 Positive mood (PANAS) .006 .920 1.336 Negative mood (PANAS) .036 .524 1.382 Depression (BDI) .151 .007 1.355 Note.Dependent variable: Memory of love toward mother during first grade using 28 items Questionnaire. Missing values replaced by means. Boldface indicates statistically significant predictor atp<.05. See also Table S1. VIF: variance inflation factor; PANAS: Positive and Negative Affect Schedule; BDI: Beck s Depression Inventory; SES: socioeconomic status; Durbin Watson¼2.064.**p<.01, ***p<.001. Patihis et al.889 income it did not eliminate the signi cant relationship between race and memory of love. As shown in Table S3, when statistically adjusting for academic achieve- ment, recent successes and failures, personality traits, stress, and exposure to traumatic experiences, the relationship between race and memory of love during sixth grade remained statistically signi cant. Tables S4 and S5 demonstrate that the relationship between race and memory of love toward mothers during ninth grade is also not rendered nonsigni cant when statistically adjusting for the covariates in those models. Statistically adjusting for demographics, SES, dierence in parental contact, academic achievement, biological factors, factors that might bias memory, and stress did not render the relationship between race and the MLPQ ninth grade subscale for mothers nonsigni cant. Age was a signi cant negative predictor in all the regression models for memory of love during ninth grade: meaning as age increased, ratings of remembered feelings of love during ninth grade decreased. Table 2 (and Table S6 in more detail) documents the descriptive statistics within Black and White groupings on measures that we investigated as covari- ates in this study, including socioeconomic, academic achievement, biological/ health, appraisals, mood, personality, and clinical measures. We found that Black participants scored higher on several variables, such as the proportion growing up in a house for the most part without a father present (31% vs. 14% in White participants), on negative mood, and on agreeableness. White partici- pants reported higher scores on SES, income, years living in same house as their father, ACT scores, hours of sleep last night, caeine consumption, self-reported health, satisfaction with life, and life successes in the last year. Despite all these dierences, statistical adjustment for these variables did not eliminate the sig- ni cant relationship between race and memory of love toward mothers. Most of those regression models are shown in Tables 1 and Tables S1 S5, and other models that interchanged covariates in the regression to avoid multicollinearity (e.g., depression substituted with anxiety; or participant s SES with father s SES, available from corresponding author on request) yielded the same result of not eliminate the statistically signi cant relationship between race and memory of love toward mothers. Discussion This study investigated memory of love toward parents among Black and White college students. Our goal was to explore whether White young adults remem- bered their love for their parents more or less than Black young adults, and if so, why. Based on past research that had shown a slight trend toward less secure parental attachment among Black individuals, we expected Black individuals to score similarly lower on memory of love toward parents. However, we found Black students reported higher scores of their memory of love for their mother during childhood more than White students. This relationship was not explained 890Psychological Reports 122(3) Table 2.Means,SD, andt-test statistics comparing Black and White individuals on demographic, SES, familial, achievement, biological, personality, and clinical measures. GroupnMSD t p Age Black 124 21.54 5.03 0.40 .689 White 124 21.83 6.32 Gender Black 124 0.85 0.35 0.82 .411 White 125 0.82 0.39 Your socioeconomic status Black 124 4.80 1.68 1.12 .264 White 125 5.02 1.50 Your mother s socioeconomic statusBlack 120 5.69 1.86 0.02 .984 White 122 5.70 2.07 Your father s socioeconomic statusBlack 108 5.47 2.40 2.32 .021 White 115 6.18 2.17 Total household income growing up.Black 91 3.36 1.90 6.30<.001 White 107 5.09 1.96 Your mother s current annual salaryBlack 89 2.94 1.59 2.12 .035 White 106 3.49 1.95 Your father s current annual salaryBlack 71 3.63 1.99 2.77 .006 White 98 4.52 2.10 0 18, how many years live in same house as your mother?Black 124 16.52 3.83 0.14 .891 White 125 16.58 3.95 0 18, how many years live in same house as your father?Black 124 9.19 7.96 4.19<.001 White 125 13.10 6.75 Lived with single mother for most of childhood (1,0)Black 124 0.31 0.46 3.30 .001 White 125 0.14 0.34 Hours of sleep did you get last night?Black 124 6.32 1.82 2.58 .011 White 125 7.00 2.28 Caffeine in the last 24 hours? Black 124 0.63 0.93 5.16<.001 White 125 1.47 1.56 In general, how you rate your health today?Black 124 3.90 0.74 2.30 .023 White 125 4.10 0.69 Current appraisal mother Black 124 4.16 1.09 0.82 .411 White 123 4.04 1.08 Satisfaction with Life Scale Black 124 22.35 6.68 3.14 .002 White 125 24.90 6.18 Successes in your life in the last year?Black 124 0.76 0.43 2.33 .020 White 125 0.87 0.34 (continued) Patihis et al.891 statistically by socioeconomic factors, number of years spent living in the house with each parent, nor by a large number of other relevant variables. The higher reported memory of love in Blacks is an intriguing nding in the context of the cultural dierences that may have resulted from the dierent origins of each cul- ture in the context of Black and White history in the So

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