Unit II Discussion Question
In Lesson 2, in the 2.1 Introduction section, we discussed that there is a process to writing, but that there is no one, specific, start-to-finish process. Instead, the process is cyclical as we learned throughout the lesson. Additionally, you learned that it is important to understand yourself as a writer and that you have your own process.Please respond to this prompt by reflecting upon your own writing process. You may choose to use the guiding questions/prompts below as a way to begin your reflection; however, you do not have to address all of the questions. The objective of this reflection is to become better acquainted with the process that you go through when writing.
- Recalling the last correspondence that you wrote, what was your process? For example, if the last correspondence you wrote was an email, what was your process in writing that email?
- Do you approach each academic writing assignment in the same way?
- What are your feelings about writing? Have you always had these feelings?
- Do you have the same feelings about all writing or just writing for which you will receive a grade?
- Do you begin by gathering your thoughts or by writing down everything you know?
- Do you always follow the same process every time you write, or does your process seem to change depending upon what you are writing?
- How does your process change (if at all) between writing prepared for work versus writing prepared for your academics?
- What is your best outline of your process for an essay?
- Did you find any of the materials in Unit II about process particularly helpful or inspirational? Why?
- Did you find the notion of “invention” as a canon of rhetoric to be interesting or productive? Why?
- What was your process for writing this reflection?
Remember that this is a piece of reflective writing, and while we tend to consider reflective writing to be about “how far we have come,” it is not necessary for that to be the case. Looking in the mirror at our reflection is not an act about the passage of time or about growth; it is about being able to see ourselves where before we could not. So remember to be kind to yourself. You are a beginning writer, and this is an exercise about discovering who you are as a writer so that we can work together to build who you will be.
Unit Three Discussion Board
So far in our course, we have discussed academic writing in depth, and with this unit, you have written (or are currently writing) your first essay. How do you feel about your progress? Do you feel that you are mastering the skills of academic writing? To that end, how do you feel about your essay? Did you discover anything by going through the process of writing the essay? Is there anything that you would like to share with your course mates? Of course, not all comparative exercises are successful. Do you feel that yours was? Did you learn something, or do you feel that you may have even taught the reader something? Reflect upon your experience so far in the course.
Unit II Discussion QuestionCOLLAPSE In Lesson 2, in the 2.1 Introduction section, we discussed that there is a process to writing, but that there is no one, specific, start-to-finish process. Instead,
Adobe Captivate Slide 1 – Unit II Lesson1 What is the Writing Situation? Text Captions: What is the Writing Situation? Unit II – Lesson 1 Slide 2 – Introduction Text Captions: Introduction In Unit I, we discussed audience awareness, genre, and academic writing. In our discussions of genre, we examined the ways in which different groups of people in different spheres of influence private, public, business, and academic employ various conventions in the forms and content of a given piece of writing and that readers (audiences) have certain expectations. These conventions and expectations help us shape what we know about genres, even though genres are fluid, meaning that they are constantly being tested and are often changing. Looking back (Stockimages, 2013) Slide 3 – The Writing Situation Text Captions: The Writing Situation… In Unit II, we will discuss a few other aspects of writing that will help you to better understand the academic essay starting with the writing situation. Understanding the writing situation is akin to understanding the genre in which you are writing and knowing the audience to whom you are writing. However, fully grasping the writing situation (what is sometimes called the rhetorical situation) means that you have a fuller understanding of the context surrounding what you are being asked to write. Having a fuller understanding of the writing situation allows you to better address the writing assignment and to fulfill all expectations, the ones that are stated and unstated. ESSAY Context Context Context Context Context Context Slide 4 – Holistic Situation Text Captions: Holistic Situation… Not all writing is the same, as we know from our discussions of genre. In order to know how best to meet the expectations of the situation we are in, we must better understand the holistic situation. Writers often ask themselves a series of questions in order to better ascertain the holistic writing situation. Click anywhere on the question mark to view questions you should ask yourself when approaching any assignment within the context of this course and other courses at CSU. Remember, we are writing academic essays for this course, but the same process can be applied to other writing situations outside of EH 1010 as well. Click here Slide 5 – Questions Text Captions: Questions to Ask Yourself Close [X] CLOSE [X] CLOSE [X] Who is the audience? What is the genre? What is the purpose? What is considered a valid source of information? What is the required length of the document? What is the deadline? Slide 6 – Writing Situation Text Captions: The Writing Situation… The answer to each of these questions provides important information that helps shape how you will write. The following slides will address each of these questions in more detail. Slide 7 – Who is the Audience? Text Captions: Who is the Audience? As we discussed in Unit I, Lesson 1: What Is Audience Awareness? your professor is your most direct audience, so you always want to satisfy him or her first. However, your professor will sometimes expect more from you. In EH 1010, your professor will expect that you will assume or imagine a much larger audience than one single person. In the section Imagining an Audience, we discussed how you could imagine an audience for every piece of writing you complete. The Introduction of Lesson 6 in Unit I also discusses your audience for this course in a more detailed sense. You might want to revisit these sections to help you think about your audience. Slide 8 – What is the Genre? Text Captions: What is the Genre? Throughout the lessons in Unit I, we discussed ways to understand genres. In the three-part series on genre in Lessons 2, 3, and 4, we discussed the general principles of how genres fulfill conventions through structure, style, and content. In Lesson 2, we looked at genre in general. In Lesson 3, we examined public and business genres. In Lesson 4, we considered academic genres, which led us into a deeper understanding of academic writing. (Dominici, 2011) Slide 9 – What is the Purpose? Text Captions: What is the Purpose? Oftentimes, on the assignment sheet, the instructor will make the purpose of the assignment clear to you. However, if the purpose is not clear, you should consider what your purpose is before you begin. Why is it so important to determine the purpose? Here are a few reasons: Reason 1 Reason 1 Reason 1 Reason 2 Reason 2 Reason 2 Reason 3 Reason 3 Reason 3 Click on each reason to learn more. Slide 10 – Purpose: Reason 1 Text Captions: Determining the purpose… Understanding the purpose helps you to plan, organize, and then execute an essay that fulfills the assignment characteristics. Close [X] CLOSE [X] CLOSE [X] Reason 1 Slide 11 – Purpose: Reason 2 Text Captions: Determining the purpose… Determining the purpose helps you stay on track while completing the assignment and reminds you of the goals of the assignment. Close [X] CLOSE [X] CLOSE [X] Reason 2 Slide 12 – Purpose: Reason 3 Text Captions: Determining the purpose… Knowing and understanding the purpose helps you to evaluate if you have completed the assignment correctly when you have finished your work. Close [X] CLOSE [X] CLOSE [X] Reason 3 Slide 13 – Valid Source Text Captions: What is Considered a Valid Source of Information? In many cases, your professor will assign you explicit instructions as to the kinds of source material that will be considered acceptable to use as support for your assertions. Usually, when we think about sources, there are a few divisions. One of the main divisions between kinds of sources is between academic sources and public sources. In both cases, sources can contain experts who have many years of experience dealing with the subject matter and who have performed hours of research. However, there are some profound differences. Click here to see the differences. Slide 14 – Differences Text Captions: Close [X] CLOSE [X] CLOSE [X] For most of your assignments here at CSU, as in most universities, you will be expected to use academic sources because they are considered the most reliable and most accurate sources of information. Slide 15 – Video: Sources of Information Text Captions: Use the controls in the bar below to play the video. Slide 16 – Required Length Text Captions: What is the Required Length of the Document? When we discussed genre in Unit I, we discussed the importance of adhering to conventions. Oftentimes, particular genres will have conventions that include expected length and development. Sometimes, this is related to the kinds of elements, like details or descriptions (or the lack of these), that should be included. A memorandum (or memo) is a business writing genre that values brevity over all else. Obviously, then, the memo stresses that key information should be conveyed to the reader in the most direct language possible. Memos are meant to be scanned, not read carefully. Interoffice emails carry on this same tradition, so if you work in an office in which people email each other continuously all day, you may experience this same need for maximizing efficiency with language. (Thomsen, 2009) Slide 17 – Required Length Text Captions: Required Length of the Document… These types of conventions affect the length of your documents. As you learn the conventions of each genre in your courses, your instructors will ask that you model your writing after these conventions by assigning you a specific range of words (e.g., 100-200 words) or a page count (2-3 pages). It is important that you observe these requirements carefully. You certainly do not want to fall below the minimum allotment because then you will not be satisfying the requirements of the assignment. However, it can be equally as important for you not to go beyond the limit. As in the case of the memo, particular genres and forms call for specific devices. If you go beyond 200 words, for example, in a certain assignment, you may feel that you are going above and beyond, but it may have been the case that the instructor was teaching you to work within the confines of the 200-word limit. Therefore, observing word limits is of the utmost importance, even when it can seem like one of the more trivial elements of the assignment. Slide 18 – Deadline Text Captions: What is the Deadline? Of course, we all know that the deadline for an assignment is important! If you do not meet the deadline, then you will incur a penalty for submitting late, or if you submit too late in a term course, you may not be able to earn credit at all. In the business world, not meeting a deadline is a professional embarrassment and can cost you a client or cost your company in lost time and money. Beyond the repercussions for not meeting a deadline, there are other benefits to knowing a deadline. These benefits are where our focus will be. (Vuono, 2009) Slide 19 – Goal Text Captions: Deadline as Goal… You should consider a deadline to be a goal. Knowing what your goal is helps you to think about the steps you will need to take in order to reach that goal. Consider your first essay assignment for this course: In Unit III, you will be asked to write a comparison/contrast essay. Knowing that you have that assignment ahead of you, you could begin writing that paper with the limited in-depth knowledge you have on that mode of essay, but your chances for success are certainly not as good. Instead, knowing that the assignment is before you, you have the opportunity to plan and organize your strategy. Especially if you are in a term course, you have a structured schedule that will help you plan your days, but how you carry out your reading, studying, and preparing is up to you. (Miles, 2014) Slide 20 – Decrease Stress Text Captions: Decrease Stress… The most prepared among your classmates will likely be the most successful. It is proven that planning and action decrease stress, which helps you to perform better, retain material, and ultimately apply concepts. Meeting a deadline is all about making small deadlines each day for yourself. These efforts will also increase your sense of accomplishment and your confidence. deadline deadline deadline deadline SUCCESS! Slide 21 – Check for Understanding Text Captions: Check for Understanding: More. re. e stepping up to his goal [Image]. Retrieved from http://www.freedigitalphotos.net/images/figure-stepping-up-to-his-goal-photo-p268634 The next section of this lesson provides you with questions to check your understanding of the material presented in the lesson. This is not for a grade. Directions: Choose your answer and select the Submit button. You can change your answer by selecting the Clear button but only before you select Submit. You can read through the Check for Understanding section again (after having answered the questions) by using the Table of Contents navigation on the left side of this presentation to take you back to the first slide of the section. Then you would simply navigate through the section by using the Next button on each slide. In order to navigate a question slide with your keyboard, hit the Tab key after entering the slide and then the up and down arrow keys to move among the answer choices. Hit the Enter key after your answer is chosen. Tab to get to other buttons. Hit y to move to the next slide. Slide 22 – Check for Understanding Text Captions: Check for Understanding: True/False The writing situation is the situation you are in when you have to write something. A) True B) False Correct (It is the context surrounding what you are being asked to write.) – Click anywhere or press y to continue. Incorrect (It is the context surrounding what you are being asked to write.) – Click anywhere or press y to continue. You must answer the question before continuing. Question 1 of 4 Slide 23 – Check For Understanding 2 Text Captions: Check for Understanding: Multiple Choice Which of the following is NOT one of the questions you should ask when considering the writing situation? A) Who is the audience? B) What is the genre? C) What is the proposal? D) What is considered a valid source of information? E) What is the required length of the document? F) What is the deadline? Correct – (What is the purpose?) Click anywhere or press y to continue. Incorrect (What is the proposal?) – Click anywhere or press y to continue. You must answer the question before continuing. Question 2 of 4 Slide 24 – Check for Understanding 3 Text Captions: Check for Understanding: True/False Understanding the purpose helps you to understand why the instructor thinks the assignment is important. A) True B) False Correct – (It helps to plan, organize, and execute an essay.) Click anywhere or press y to continue. Incorrect (It helps to plan, organize, and execute an essay.) – Click anywhere or press y to continue. You must answer the question before continuing. Question 3 of 4 Slide 25 – Check for Understanding 4 Text Captions: Check for Understanding: True/False Page counts and word limits are requirements of the assignment and should be strictly observed, including not writing over the ranges provided. A) True B) False Correct (Consider these requirements to be the foundations of the assignment.) Click anywhere or press y to continue. Incorrect (Consider these requirements to be the foundations of the assignment.) Click anywhere or press y to continue. You must answer the question before continuing. Question 4 of 4 Slide 26 – Review Text Captions: Review – Part 1 For the purposes of our course, the writing situation will include the following questions: Who is the audience? What is the genre? What is the purpose? What is considered a valid source of information? What is the required length of the document? What is the deadline? The writing situation is… The writing situation is the context surrounding what you are being asked to write. Select each item to learn more. Slide 27 – Review Text Captions: Review – Part 2 Not all types of source information are the same… Not all types of source information are the same; that is why it is key to know the difference between academic sources and public sources. Academic sources are written by professionals in the field; for a specific, trained audience; in a technical language; with methodical citations; and using conventional formatting. Public sources are written by professional writers; for general readers; in an accessible language; with attribution, but rarely with citations. Understanding an assignment s purpose… Understanding an assignment s purpose can help you with planning, tracking progress, and evaluating success before submission. Select each item to learn more. Slide 28 – Review Text Captions: Review – Part 3 Deadlines are… Deadlines are sometimes challenging, but they can present us with opportunities for organization and goal planning. And, don t forget to review… Unit I, 1.3, and Unit I, 6.1, to help you think about audience awareness. Unit I, Lessons 2, 3, and 4, to help you think about genre. The length of a document… The length of a document is often key to its genre, so all length ranges should be adhered to strictly. Select each item to learn more. Slide 29 – The End Text Captions: This concludes the material for the lesson. End The Slide 30 – References Text Captions: References… Dominici, D. C. (2011). 3d man with questions mark [Image]. Free Digital Photos. http://www.freedigitalphotos.net/images/Ideas_and_decision_m_g409-3d_Man_With_Questions_Mark_p60167.html Miles, S. (2014). Time to plan means aspire goals and target [Image]. Free Digital Photos. http://www.freedigitalphotos.net/images/time-to-plan-means-aspire-goals-and-target-photo-p288925 Stockimages. (2013). African primary girl showing the way to her classroom [Image]. Free Digital Photos. http://www.freedigitalphotos.net/images/Gestures_g185-African_Primary_Girl_Showing_The_Way_To_Her_Classroom_p155012.html Thomsen, R. (2009). Folding ruler [Image]. Free Digital Photos. http://www.freedigitalphotos.net/images/Office_and_stationer_g145-Folding_Ruler_p4882.html Vuono, S. (2009). Time [Image]. Free Digital Photos. http://www.freedigitalphotos.net/images/Timepieces_g190-Time_p10665.html Page 30 of 30
Unit II Discussion QuestionCOLLAPSE In Lesson 2, in the 2.1 Introduction section, we discussed that there is a process to writing, but that there is no one, specific, start-to-finish process. Instead,
Adobe Captivate Slide 1 – Unit II Lesson 2 Writing as a Process Text Captions: Writing as a Process Unit II – Lesson 2 Slide 2 – Introduction Text Captions: Introduction The act of writing is often described as a process rather than as one action. In this way, writing is not simply a thing that you accomplish by sitting down at a desk and doing it. Instead, it is something that is accomplished through steps that are often recursive, making up a process that constitutes a piece of work that has often been revisited in several different ways. This process is part of the reason that professional writers call writing the craft because to truly master writing is to understand the process itself intimately. Uh, hey, Essay. Ready for another visit? (Serge Bertasius Photography, 2015) Note: There is red text in this lesson. Please access the script for this lesson if you need to see a black and white version. Slide 3 – The Process Text Captions: The Process… In this lesson, we will discuss the process of writing. Unlike some other textbooks that would teach one specific process, this presentation will provide you with information about the process of writing. Then as you better understand the process of writing and you better understand yourself as a writer, you can begin to fashion your specific writing process. The truth is that as much as students in a writing course could learn about a writing process, each student can only apply that process according to what works for his or her own learning style. The most important points here are that you are able to take away a better understanding of yourself as a writer and that you will have a better understanding of your own writing process. What style works best for me? Slide 4 – Reading the Assignment Text Captions: Reading the Assignment… We know from the previous lesson, Lesson 1 (Unit II), that understanding the writing situation is imperative to understanding how best to begin writing, so we know that reading the assignment sheet is very important in understanding the writing situation. The assignment often includes all of the relevant details that we seek about the audience, genre, purpose, valid sources, required length, and deadline. Even if some of these aspects are only implied, they should be available on the assignment sheet or in the lesson itself. (Ambro, 2012) Slide 5 – Seek Help Text Captions: Seek Help… Success Center s Writing Center 1.877.875.0533 [email protected] If the aspects (audience, genre, purpose, valid sources, required length, and deadline) are not available, then reading the assignment (and reading it early on) will help you to know what questions you need to ask of your support network: the Success Center or, of course, your professor. Remember the importance of reading over all of the details of the assignment before you approach a writing specialist or a professor. (Stockimages, 2013) Slide 6 – Five Canons Text Captions: The Five Canons of Rhetoric… In ancient times, the Greeks studied rhetoric, or the discipline of eloquent speaking and argumentation. For the Greeks and for the Romans who followed them, rhetoric was an ethical calling because it was bound to civics and the imperative that each citizen had to speak about a right or wrong he or she witnessed occurring within the city-state. Today, we might think of rhetoric in terms of social justice, politics, social commentary, advocacy, pundits, leaders of all kinds, etc. While we cannot fully understand or appreciate the Greek or Roman mind of ancient times and how they loved their city-state, we can understand the love for one s nation, a desire to promote heroes who have died, and a call to action when wrongs have been done to the vulnerable among us. When the rhetor was ready to write a speech, he or she would prepare by going through the five canons of rhetoric. (Idea go, 2011) Slide 7 – Five Canons Text Captions: Five Canons I II III IV V Invention the act of discovering what one will write about; what are the ideas Arrangement concerning the order or organization of a speech or piece of writing Style making artful choices that affect how the audience will consume the ideas Memory memorization of the speech and triggering the memory of the speech while performing it Delivery how the speech is given in the performative sense (linked to style) Select each object to learn more. Slide 8 – Five Canons Text Captions: The Five Canons of Rhetoric… While contemporary speechwriters might still follow the five canons, there are a few of these that we have left behind. Most notably, communication today has a textual component because paper and digital writing have become so inexpensive technology that the ancients did not have at their disposal. Therefore, we do not concern ourselves with memory and delivery in the same way. You mean, I could have put this speech in an email? (Iosphere, 2014) Slide 9 – Core Components Text Captions: Core Components… However, the core components of what the ancients have to teach us is still here: invention, arrangement, and style, and we still employ these lessons as the cornerstones of Western writing practices. In our contemporary moment, we have renamed these components, giving them the names pre-writing, organization, and stylistics. We will learn about these concepts in the following presentation materials, but let s add one more to these three to make four solid cornerstones to our foundation: revision. Pre-Writing Organization Stylistics Revision (Invention) (Arrangement) (Style) (Rawich, 2013) Slide 10 – Revision Text Captions: Revision… One of the ideas that the ancients understood about the five canons that is difficult for us to grasp is that they saw the canons as a kind of philosophical expression of thought and critical inquiry. If argumentation and ethics were part of the civic good, then every argument that was spoken in the senate was part of the health of the city-state, as was a speech given on a street corner. For the ancients, arguments and speeches were the ultimate expression of democracy almost as important as voting. Revision is important because it allows for the process to begin anew. With the original five canons, speechwriters could move through the steps as they pleased, beginning again wherever they saw fit. Removing two of the five, however, causes a slight deficit, but by introducing the notion of revision, suddenly, there is room to move within the remaining steps. Revision Pre-Writing Organization Stylistics Pre-Writing Organization Revision Stylistics Slide 11 – Invention Text Captions: What is Invention? Invention is one of the best parts of the writing process because it is the freest. The word invention comes from the Latin word invenire, meaning “to find.” Through the act of invention, the writer finds the ideas, message, and even the means of shaping the message. The ancient Greeks taught what were called the common places, topoi, ideas that were supposed to be known to all Greeks. Some of these we still use: comparison and contrast, cause and effect, appeals to logic (logos) and emotion (pathos), or the use of someone s character to persuade (ethos). These are certainly not all of the topoi, there are hundreds, but we can begin to think about these as the places where these ancients started, and where we can begin to think about our writing as well. (Master Isolated Images, 2013) Slide 12 – Comparison Text Captions: Imagining Comparisons… Imagine for just a moment that you have been asked to begin a comparison-contrast essay (like the one that you will be writing in Unit III). Even without all of the preparation that you will receive in Unit III to help you write that essay, you could still sit down right now and think about the ways that we, as consumers, for example, compare and contrast the products we buy each day. How might you compare and contrast two of the leading smartphones or two of the leading tablets? How do you begin comparing products when you purchase a big-ticket item? Do you think about quality, dependability, brand name, reviews, options, personalization options, longevity, or durability? All of these elements could become points for your essay, and they are all part of the process of invention. (Miles, 2013) Slide 13 – Video: What is Invention? Text Captions: Use the controls in the bar below to play the video. Slide 14 – Check for Understanding Text Captions: Check for Understanding: More. re. e stepping up to his goal [Image]. Retrieved from http://www.freedigitalphotos.net/images/figure-stepping-up-to-his-goal-photo-p268634 The next section of this lesson provides you with questions to check your understanding of the material presented in the lesson. This is not for a grade. Directions: Choose your answer and select the Submit button. You can change your answer by selecting the Clear button but only before you select Submit. You can read through the Check for Understanding section again (after having answered the questions) by using the Table of Contents navigation on the left side of this presentation to take you back to the first slide of the section. Then you would simply navigate through the section by using the Next button on each slide. In order to navigate a question slide with your keyboard, hit the Tab key after entering the slide and then the up and down arrow keys to move among the answer choices. Hit the Enter key after your answer is chosen. Tab to get to other buttons. Hit y to move to the next slide. Slide 15 – Check for Understanding Text Captions: Check for Understanding: Fill-In-The-Blank Complete the sentence below by filling in the blanks. The act of writing is often described as a process rather than as one action . Correct – Click anywhere or press y to continue. Incorrect (process, action) – Click anywhere or press y to continue. You must answer the question before continuing. Question 1 of 5 Slide 16 – Check for Understanding 2 Text Captions: Check for Understanding: True/False The process of writing is linear, not recursive. A) True B) False Correct (It is recursive.) – Click anywhere or press y to continue. Incorrect (It is recursive.) – Click anywhere or press y to continue. You must answer the question before continuing. Question 2 of 5 Slide 17 – Check for Understanding 3 Text Captions: Check for Understanding: True/False There is only one version of the writing process. A) True B) False Correct (Writing is a process specific to the writer.) – Click anywhere or press y to continue. Incorrect (Writing is a process specific to the writer.) – Click anywhere or press y to continue. You must answer the question before continuing. Question 3 of 5 Slide 18 – Check for Understanding 4 Text Captions: Check for Understanding: Multiple Choice Which of the following is NOT one of the five canons of rhetoric? A) Invitation B) Arrangement C) Style D) Memory E) Delivery Correct – Click anywhere or press y to continue. Incorrect (Invitation) – Click anywhere or press y to continue. You must answer the question before continuing. Question 4 of 5 Slide 19 – Check for Understanding 5 Text Captions: True/False Check for Understandi